papers vary in their exact requirements, and no one example can cover all the The normal scientific report has a standard structure (parts in parentheses are.
Table of contents
- Writing Scientific Reports: Scientific Writing
- Using reference management software
- Lab report structure
- BIO 121 - General Biology: Writing a Scientific Report
The title page should include: the title, the name s and affiliation s of the author s , an address for correspondence, and telephone numbers for editorial queries. Original and review articles should include an Abstract a single paragraph of no more than words and key words for abstracting and indexing purposes. Please do not split the article into separate files title page as one file, text as another, etc. Do not allow your computer to introduce word splits and do not use a 'justified' layout.
It is very important that you save your file in the standard format for the program you are using Microsoft Word docx format or doc format.
Please write your text in good English American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. Provide the following information in your submission in the order given : Original research papers 1. Manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter, introducing the manuscript and confirming that it is not being submitted concurrently elsewhere.
The Abstract should be no more than words 3. The limit for the main body of the manuscript is words excluding references 4. There should not normally be more than 40 references 5. You must use Times New Roman, Font size 12, Single spaced throughout your manuscript If your manuscript exceeds the above limits, and you are unable to reduce the size, please include a statement in your cover letter declaring that you have exceeded the limits and justify the reasons for doing so for the Editors' consideration.
Manuscripts must include: 1. Acknowledgements 8. Title page The title page should be paginated as page 1 of the manuscript. Title of article: Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Writing Scientific Reports: Scientific Writing
Author names and affiliations: The title page should include the names and addresses of authors. Generally for uniformity author names should be written as first name, middle name initial followed by family name, e. James Z. Present the authors' affiliation addresses where the actual work was done below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.
Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name. Corresponding author: Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone numbers with country and area code are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. Abstract The abstract will be printed at the beginning of the paper. A concise and factual abstract is required maximum length words. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.
Do not cite references in the abstract. Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided in the abstract, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract must be organized under the following subject headings: Background: This must indicate why the study was performed, and what question it was intended to answer.
Methods: This should state in outline what methods were used. Results: The main results relevant to the question addressed should be summarised. Conclusions: This should summarize the main inferences that follow from the results. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field at their first occurrence in the article: in the abstract but also in the main text after it. Introduction The introduction should give a short and clear account of the background of the problem and state the objectives of the work.
Only previous work that has a direct bearing on the present problem should be cited. Methods The methods must be described in sufficient detail to allow the experiments to be interpreted and repeated by an experienced investigator. Where published methods are used, references should be given, together with a brief outline.
The statistical tool used to analyze the data should be mentioned. The description of drugs, chemicals and other materials should include the names and brief address of the relevant suppliers. If a drug has no INN its full chemical name must be used.
Using reference management software
All procedures involving experimental animals or human subjects must accompany a statement on ethical approval from appropriate ethics committee. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs:. Results Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or figures; emphasize or summarize only important observations.
Lab report structure
Discussion and Conclusions The purpose of the discussion is to present a brief and pertinent interpretation of the results against the background of existing knowledge. Any assumptions on which conclusions are based must be stated clearly. The main conclusions should be conveyed in a final paragraph with a clear statement of how the study advances knowledge and understanding in the field. Acknowledgements Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.
When the work included in a paper has been supported by a grant from any source, this must be indicated.
BIO 121 - General Biology: Writing a Scientific Report
A connection of any author with companies producing any substances or apparatus used in the work should be declared. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. Declarations This information must also be inserted into your manuscript under the acknowledgements section with the headings below.
References References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text. Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in superscript after the punctuation marks. All authors should be quoted for papers with up to six authors; for papers with more than six authors, the first six should be quoted followed by et al.
Metformin-glibenclamide versus metformin plus rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. Drug addiction and drug abuse. Website: National Cancer Institute.
Fact sheet: targeted cancer therapies, Accessed 9 June Tables Each table should be given on a separate page, paginated as part of the paper. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and the number should be followed by a brief descriptive caption, occupying not more than two lines, at the head of the table e. Table 1: Effect of drug on blood pressure. Tables should normally be self-explanatory, with necessary descriptions provided underneath the table. Each column should have a heading and the units of measurement should be given in parentheses in the heading.
Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data and included beneath the table body. Figures and Legends Authors are encouraged to use color to enhance the impact and clarity of figures. There is no charge for using color in International Journal of Scientific Reports.
For figures supplied in parts, please use A, B, C, etc.
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Name your figure files with Figure and the figure number, e. For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork photographs, line drawings, etc. Computer prepared images must be at a minimum of dpi at the final publication size. Lower resolution will result in pixilation and poor quality images. Figure legends should be typed on a separate page of the main manuscript document. Legends should explain the figures in sufficient detail that, whenever possible, they can be understood without reference to the text.